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IMPORTANT! Information about best utilising this resource
1. Why Study Solids?
2. Some crystallographic ideas
3. Representations of structures
4. Close-Packing of spheres
5. Structures of metallic elements
6. Interstitial sites in close-packed arrangements
1. Ions and ionic structures
2. 'Ionic' structures derived from occupancy of interstitial sites in close-packed structures
3. Structures described as linked polyhedra
4. Descriptions of some common structures
1. Principles of Laves
2. Ionic model
3. Specific Interactions stabilising some structures (e.g. NiAs, PbO, PdO, NH4F)
4. Directed Bonding/Covalency/Polarization - trends in dimensionality
1. Oxide Structures
2. Connectivity - Topological approach to structures
e.g. non-metallic elements
e.g. Diamond (C) / Sphalerite (ZnS) / Cristobalite (SiO2) / Cuprite (Cu2O)
e.g. silicate minerals
ICL Practical, Structures of Solids
The practical can be used in conjunction with this resource, related to the lectures, in order to improve your understanding of the structures of solids.
L. Smart & E. Moore, Solid State Chemistry, 2nd edn., Chapman & Hall, 1995, Ch. 1 (an excellent overview)
D.F. Shriver & P.W. Atkins, Inorganic Chemistry, 3rd edn., OUP., 1999, p. 35-52 (brief & simple)
J.E. Huheey, E.A. Keiter & R.L. Keiter, Inorganic Chemistry, 4th edn., HarperCollins, 1993, Ch. 4 (especially p. 122-127)
B.E. Douglas, D.H. McDaniel & J.J. Alexander, Concepts & Models of Inorganic Chemistry, 3rd edn. Wiley, 1994, Ch. 5 (good on close-packing)
D.M. Adams, Inorganic Solids, Wiley, 1974, esp. Ch. 1-5 (an excellent book, sadly out of print)
A.R. West, Basic Solid State Chemistry, 2nd edn., Wiley, 1999, p. 14-65 or Solid State Chemistry, Wiley, 1984, Chs. 7, 8 (Description/Rationalization of structures)
U. Müller, Inorganic Structural Chemistry, Wiley, 1993, Chs. 2, 6, 10, 11, 13-16 (Interesting supplementary info.)
Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, University of Oxford 1st Year Practical, Structures of Simple Inorganic Solids
A.F. Wells, Structural Inorganic Chemistry, 5th edn., OUP., 1984, (Classic, comprehensive reference book)
R.C. Evans, An Introduction to Crystal Chemistry, 2nd edn., CUP., 1966 (Very clear diagrams of structures)
F.S. Galasso, Structures & Properties of Inorganic Solids, Pergamon, 1970 (Crystallographic info.)
J.K. Burdett, Chemical Bonding in Solids, OUP, 1995 (Advanced Discussion of Pauling's Rules)
J.K. Burdett & J.R. Rodgers, Structure & Property Maps for Inorganic Solids, in R.B. King, Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry, Wiley, 1994, Vol. 7, pp. 3934-3952
Crystal Lattices are shown classified by Strukturbericht Designation, by Pearson Symbol or by Space Group or in classes such as simple cubic, ccp or related, hcp or related, perovskites, etc... Pictures, representations and vector descriptions are collected here for a wide range of structures. xyz coordinates may be downloaded to view the structure in e.g. RasMol
This page shows stereoviews of some lattices and also interstitial holes. Clinographic perspective views of 3D solid structures are necessarily in 2-dimensions! Observing the two stereoview pictures in the correct way gives an apparent 3-dimensional quality to the image, enhancing the ability to visualize it. There's a certain knack to seeing the 3D image at the centre of the field of view - and don't get cross-eyed by staring too long!
Prof. Chan has written Java applets to allow you to view and manipulate crystal structures within your web browser. These are less versatile than viewing in the CrystalMaker program, but have the distinct advantage of being computer-platform independent - so a good complement to this site if you are using a PC.
Get the Chime pluggin for your browser and Prof. Maverick has some nice Chime files so that you can view some simple inorganic solids in Ball & Stick or Space-Filling Modes or display various aspects of the arrangement of atoms, all whilst reorienting the structure within your browser.
An introduction to the structures of solids at a simpler level than this course, with two parallel sites, one containing VRML models of the structures, the other using avi movies to show structural features.
A demonstration of aspects of structure in a wide range of Inorganic materials and a useful source of 3D crystal structures in VRML, including generation of VRML files for solids from a variety of standard crystallographic formats using the program "xtal-3d".
La Chimie par le Web by Prof. Charles Jacoboni, Université du Maine, Le Mans
Want to read these lectures in French? This comprehensive site offers amongst other attractions the possibility to read the "Structures of Simple Solids" course beautifully translated into French by Prof. Charles Jacoboni.
Lecture 1 (French) ... Lecture 2 (French) ... Lecture 3(French) ... Lecture 4 (French)
For German speakers there are comprehensive lectures on inorganic materials structures by Prof. Caroline Röhr of the University of Freiburg. Even if you don't read German you will appreciate the VRML files for many structure types, including polyhedral representations.
The ICSD of the University of Bonn is the definitive database of Inorganic Crystal Structures that have been determined by means of diffraction experiments. The structural parameters used to define the structures in these lectures were retrieved from the ICSD through the UK access point, the Chemical Database Service (CDS) at the Daresbury Laboratory, CLRC. You can view a selection of structures from the ICSD in the ILL's demonstration.The CDS service also allows access to the CRYSTMET Database of the NRC, Canada and the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD), which respectively provide structures for metals and C-C/C-H bond-containing materials.
A lot of the simple inorganic structures presented in these lectures occur naturally as minerals and this very approachable mineralogy course will broaden your perspective of the importance of learning about basic structural principles
The University Museum of the University of Oxford on Parks Road has some fine collections of minerals. The museum is open from 12:00 - 17:00 Mon-Sat and is well worth a visit.
The Abbot's Kitchen of the ICL contains a small display relating to the work of Prof. Dorothy Hodgkin, who won a Nobel Prize for her work in the field of crystallography.
Both local and on the internet! You'll find useful resources here in all areas of chemistry, including solids, such as:-
March 1997's Molecule of the Month feature on Gemstones, which includes virtual reality VRML structures.
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