Bacteria and blue-green algae have the simplest pattern of organization.
They may be rod-shaped, spherical, or helical; they also may occur
singly or in clusters (see M. paratuberculosis on page 2).
The main features of a bacterial cell are diagrammed on the next
page. These features are relatively few: cell membrane, wall and
capsule, cytoplasm or cell fluid, photosynthetic vesicles or membranes,
DNA, ribosomes for protein synthesis, mesosomal infoldings of the
cell membrane, and sometimes flagella or pili on the outside (see
Bacteria are small; for example, Escherichia coli (E. coli - right)
from our intestines is a rounded-end cylinder 10,000
across and 20,000
long, weighing about 2 x 10