The periodic table of the elements
in its most complete form as it has been developed since Mendeleev's
time is shown above. It summarizes the observed chemical behavior
of atoms. In essence it is a series of eight-element rows, representing
shells containing one to eight electrons. To this extent, the eight-electron
shell model of previous chapters has been correct. The first row
contains only two elements, hydrogen and helium. The second and
third rows contain eight elements each.
The fourth row is interrupted after
the second element, and a series of ten additional metals is inserted,
the transition metals scandium (Sc) through zinc (Zn). Similarly,
the fifth row is interrupted by the insertion of another series
of ten transition metals, yttrium (Y) through cadmium (Cd). The
sixth row has a double interruption: a set of fourteen inner
transition metals (also called lanthanides or rare earths),
and a series of ten more transition metals.