Because grapes are a rich source of glucose, they have given glucose
the name "grape sugar." Honey contains a mixture of glucose
and fructose, and was the standard sweetener for mankind for millennia
before the advent of sugar cane. Sugar cane and sugar beets contain
sucrose, a disaccharide made of glucose and fructose linked together
as shown here.
Sugar cane appeared in India from Southeast Asia some time around
the fifth century B.C. According to the Greek geographer Strabo,
one of Alexander the Great's admirals reported seeing Indian "reeds
that produce honey, although there are no bees," but sugar
did not spread into the Western world until the time of the Arab
conquests in the seventh century A.D.
At about the same time, the Chinese were importing "stone
honey" from India as a luxury. Sucrose did not really replace
honey as a cheap sweetener in Europe until the era of the great
sugar cane plantations in the New World in the 1600's.