Which of the gases among the second-shell elements are diatomic
and which are monatomic like He?
8. What is the difference between the covalent radius and the nonbonded
or packing radius of an atom?
9. What is "ionization" of an atom? How many electrons will an atom
of lithium give up easily? How many will beryllium give up when
it ionizes? How many will boron give up? What do these numbers tell
us about electron-shell structure?
10. Why does carbon not ionize in its ordinary chemical reactions?
If it did, what would be the charge on the ion, following the principle
implied in the preceding question? What do carbon atoms do instead
11. Does a fluorine atom gain, or lose, electrons when it ionizes?
Why? How many electrons are gained or lost when an oxygen atom forms
an oxide ion? What neutral atom has the same number of electrons
as these ions?